In the course of working hard to make a difference in the lives of Survivors of Torture, treatment programs often overlook, or do not know how to recognize and respond to the pervasive impact of this work on staff and the organization. While individual and professional self-care can help to reduce the effects of the “costs of caring,” organizational culture plays a key role in this process.

Direct services providers may be most at risk, but leadership should be mindful that others can be affected as well. And while systems for monitoring vicarious or secondary trauma are (or should be) in place for direct services providers at centers and programs, those systems are generally not in place for other staff – another reason for leadership to be mindful.

This section of the website presents information about how the nature of work with survivors of torture can influence staff and organizational well-being, and shares resources for individuals and organizational leadership to prevent Compassion Fatigue and Vicarious Trauma.

Responding to secondary traumatic stress: A pilot study of torture treatment programs in the United States

Akinsulure-Smith, A.M., Keatley, E., & Rasmussen, A. (2012). Responding to Secondary Traumatic Stress: A Pilot Study of Torture Treatment Programs in the United States. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 25 (2), 232-235. doi: 10.1002/jts.21684. 

Abstract: Providers who care for torture survivors may be at risk for secondary traumatic stress, yet there has been little documentation of the effects of repeated exposure to traumatic issues on their emotional health or exploration of the support systems and resources available to address their emotional needs.

Secondary Trauma and Local Mental Health Professionals in Post Conflict Sierra Leone

Akinsulure-Smith, A.M. & Keatley, E. (2013). Secondary Trauma and Local Mental Health Professionals in Post Conflict Sierra Leone. International Journal for the Advancement of Counseling, 36 (2), 125-135. doi: 10.1007/s10447-013-9197-5. 

Abstract: This pilot study explores the impact of secondary stress on the emotional well-being of local mental health professionals (N = 44) in Sierra Leone, a country recovering from a brutal civil war, while examining the types of training and support offered to these professionalsby their organizations.

Serving Survivors of Torture: Attending to Vicarious Trauma and Enhancing Vicarious Resilience

Wednesday, 19 January 2011

Literature Related to Vicarious Trauma

Comprehensive bibliography compiled by Beth Hudnall Stamm: Stamm, B.H. (2010, November). Comprehensive Bibliography Of The Effect Of Caring For Those Who Have Experienced Extremely Stressful Events and Suffering.

The National Center for PTSD’s PILOTS database is a great source for traumatic stress literature:

Baker EK. Caring for ourselves: A therapist’s guide to personal and professional well-being. Washington, DC:  American Psychological Association; 2003.

Figley CR (ed). Compassion fatigue:

Vicarious Traumatization: Potential Hazards and Interventions for Disaster and Trauma Workers

Palm, K.M., Polusny, M.A., & Follette, V.M. (2004). Vicarious Traumatization: Potential Hazards and Interventions for Disaster and Trauma Workers. Prehospital and Disaster Medicine, 19 (1), 73-78. doi: 10.1017/s1049023x00001503. 

Abstract: Disaster and trauma workers often disregard their own reactions and needs when focusing on caring for those directly exposed to traumatic events. This article discusses the concept of vicarious traumatization, a form of post-traumatic stress response sometimes experienced by those who indirectly are exposed to traumatic events.

Vicarious Traumatization: Symptoms and Predictors

Lerias, D., & Byrne, M.K. (2003). Vicarious Traumatization: Symptoms and Predictors. Stress and Health, 19, 129-138. doi: 10.1002/smi.969. 

Abstract: Having to intervene in severe crises or bearing witness to human tragedy, can take its toll on the individual (Erickson, Vande Kemp, Gorsuch, Hoke & Foy, 2001; Lind, 2000; Lugris, 2000). These effects can include severe, debilitating anxiety that persists for months and sometimes even years following the event.