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Fundamentals: Working With Interpreters Resources

Original Publication Date: June 26, 2017
Last Updated: April 1, 2023
Estimated Read Time: 2 minutes


Angelelli, C. V. (2004). Medical Interpreting and Cross-Cultural Communication. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Carr, S. E., Roberts, R., & Dufour, A. (Eds.). The Critical Link: Interpreters in the Community: Papers from the First International Conference on Interpreting in Legal, Health, and Social Services. John Benjamins Pub. Co.

Duffy, K. & Veltri, D. (1998). Interpreting in Therapy: Getting Out of the Way. VIEWS, 15 (4).

Gunther, M. (1994). Counter-transference Issues in Staff Caregivers who Work to Rehabilitate Catastrophic-Injury
Survivors. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 48, (2), 208-220.

Haenel F. Aspects and problems associated with the use of interpreters in psychotherapy of victims of torture. Torture 1997;7: 68–71.

Kaufert, J. & Putsch, R. (1997) Communication Through Interpreters in Healthcare: Ethical Dilemmas Arising from
Differences in Class, Culture, Language and Power. Journal of Clinical Ethics 8, (1), 71-87.

Miller, Kenneth E.; Martell, Zoe L.; Pazdirek, Linda; Caruth, Melissa; Lopez, Diana. (2005) The Role of Interpreters in Psychotherapy With Refugees: An Exploratory Study. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry. Vol 75(1), 27-39.

Miller, K. (2004). Beyond the frontstage: Trust, access, and the relational context in research with refugee communities. American Journal of Community Psychology, 33, 217–227.

National Code of Ethics for Interpreters In Health Care. (July 2004). The National Council On Interpreting In Health Care Working Papers Series – U.S. DHHS Office for Minority Health.

Palmer, T. (2001, April). An Interpreter’s Retrospective View. VIEWS.

Pollard, R. (1998). Interpreting in Mental Health: A Mentored Curriculum. Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press. (Nine-chapter workbook with accompanying videotape of interpreting vignettes.)

Sabin, J. (1975). Translating despair. American Journal of Psychiatry, 132, 197–199.

Shackman, J. &  Reynolds J. Working with refugees and torture survivors: help for the helpers. In: Heller T, Reynolds J, Gomm R, Pattison S, eds. Mental health matters: a reader. London: Macmillan, Open University, 1996.

Stansfield, M. (1981). Therapist and Interpreter: A working relationship. Annapolis, MD.

Tribe, R. (1999). Bridging the gap or damming the flow? Some observations on using interpreters/bicultural workers when working with refugee clients, many of whom have been tortured. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 72, 567–576.

Wallace T. (1990) Refugee women: their perspectives and our responses. Oxford: Oxfam.

Williams, U. (1983). Interpreting in Mental Health Situations: Basic Issues. In D. Watson & B. Heller, (Eds.) Mental Health and Deafness: Strategic Perspectives, Silver Spring, MD: American Deafness and Rehabilitation Association.


The International Medical Interpreters Association has a good resources page. It also has a document on the IMIA standards of practice: These standards of practice developed by the IMIA were developed in 1996 and updated in 2007. This document outlines the role of an interpreter in a clinical setting and provides standards of practice on interpretation, cultural competency, and ethics. Additionally, the document contains an evaluation tool. This document can be used in the development of a training program for interpreters, as an evaluation tool, and in preparing health care providers to work with interpreters.

The Cross Cultural Health Care Program offers a two-page document “Guidelines for Providing Health Care Services Through an Interpreter” (attached).

The Center for Applied Linguistics has very useful and insightful background materials on various refugee populations.



Healing the Hurt: A Guide for Developing Services for Torture Survivors (see below in blue card)

22-page guidelines for mental health settings

AV Materials:

Communicating Effectively Through an Interpreter. From the Cross Cultural Health Care Program, this excellent 28-minute DVD is available for $150.

Lesson summary (Job Aid):

This is a one-page, quick reference for the lesson: Job Aid

Included in the eLearning:

Return to the Fundamentals E-Learning Series home page to continue on another lesson or from some of the lessons below.