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Mollica, R., Lyoo, I.K., Chernoff, M., Bui, H., Lavelle ,J., Yoon, S., Kim, J., Renshaw, P. (2009) Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2009; 66(11):1221-1232.
Traumatic Head Injury is a common form of torture and occurs frequently in survivors of mass violence. This study of South Vietnamese ex–political detainees who had been incarcerated in Vietnamese reeducation camps and resettled in the United States disclosed significant mental health problems associated with torture and traumatic head injury.
Ricardo E. Jorge, MD; Robert G. Robinson, MD; David Moser, PhD; Amane Tateno, MD; Benedicto Crespo-Facorro, MD; Stephan Arndt, PhD. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2004; 61:42-50.
Major depression is a frequent complication of TBI that hinders a patient's recovery. The article aims to determine the clinical, neuropsychological, and structural neuroimaging correlates of major depression occurring after TBI.
University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Department of Neurology
General considerations on the assessment of brain functions and how they affect behavior, not specific to torture survivors.
Moreno, A., Grodin, MA. (2002) Spinal Cord, 40(5):213-23
There are several forms of torture that may affect the nervous system including beatings, gunshot wounds, stab wounds, asphyxiation, prolonged suspension and electrocution. Victims of torture commonly experience neurological symptoms such as headaches, vertigo, loss of consciousness and dizziness during and after torture. The authors argue that the treatment of these neurological conditions does not differ from other patient populations. However, the clinical approach is unique and must focus on avoiding retraumatization and helping the victim reintegrate into society as quickly as possible.